This is the post excerpt.
A picture says a thousands words — here is an example. This is the official portrait of Jacob Cox as Governor of Ohio. He was elected in 1865 while still in the Volunteer Army. He chose to be pictured as what I call the consummate “citizen-general.” A self-trained military man, Cox the private citizen had an outstanding military career in the Civil War, but then chose to return to civilian life. In the painting he wears his dress uniform as a two-star Major General, but in his hand is his commission as Governor. On the table behind him is his commission as a general, his sword and scabbard, and his binoculars. The latter are symbols of what he has left behind, but also reminders that they are available if the nation calls again. This is among the reasons why I put this picture on the cover of my biography of Cox, “Citizen-General: Jacob Dolson Cox and the Civil War Era.” The book is available via amazon. com. See also my web-site, https://civilwarhistory-geneschmiel.com
As the debate over the memory of the Civil War and the status of memorials and statues rages on, I have been encouraged to hear of efforts to find common ground and reach compromises on these contentious issues. My latest post suggested that the placement of a statue of Arthur Ashe on Richmond’s Monument Avenue near to statues of Lost Cause stalwarts Lee, Davis, Stuart, and Jackson is one of the earlier examples.
A recent example took place in Franklin, Tennessee, where a series of historical markers were unveiled on October 17, 2019 on and near that city’s central square. This followed a series of public meetings over two years seeking ways for, as the group’s creators put it, “telling a fuller story.” (Until recently Franklin had given the appearance of being a “Confederate town,” with only a large statue of a Confederate soldier in the middle of the square and many streets named after Confederate generals — and none after Union generals). The result was a series of plaques added to the square and in front of the nearby courthouse about the U.S. Colored Troops, the 1867 Downtown Riots, Reconstruction, and the Courthouse and Market House. In addition, the group is raising funds to have a statue of a U.S. Colored Troops soldier placed in a designated spot on the square near to the monument to the Confederate soldier — who is nicknamed “Chip” because part of his hat is chipped.
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864, was a key to the ultimate success of the Union army on the western front. The Battle of Franklin Trust has has made a herculean effort to create a battlefield park which memorializes the battle and the men who fought there. The Trust is also a key partner of the group which has changed the face of Franklin’s square, a step which one hopes will be an example of how compromise and broader vision can tell a fuller story without diminishing anyone’s memory or memorialization.
Below are my pictures of the new plaques and Franklin’s square before these additions:
On my way to Franklin, Tennessee to give my talk to the Round Table there February 9, we stopped in Richmond to take a stroll/drive down Monument Avenue.
As readers know, this road is by any definition the best exemplar of a triumphal paean of praise to the Lost Cause — or at least it used to be until 1996 when a statue of Arthur Ashe was added to the avenue.
The first and most important (or at least the largest) statue is that of Robert E. Lee astride his horse. It was inaugurated in 1890. To its east and west two monuments, one to J.E.B. Stuart and one to (non-Virginian) Jefferson Davis, were inaugurated in 1907. Further to the west, the monument to “Stonewall” Jackson was inaugurated in 1919, and one to Matthew Maury to its west was inaugurated in 1929.
In some ways the addition of the statue of Ashe to this particular avenue can be said to be the beginning of the modern re-thinking of the Confederate statue/memorial issue. In recent years the debate has become rancorous, though that in turn has led to some sensible compromises. My next blog post will cover one example of that welcome new approach to this difficult problem, in Franklin, Tennessee.
Below are my photos of the monuments, from east to west, and an overall photo of the tree-lined avenue.
On January 31, 1865, the House of Representatives had its final debate about the 13th amendment, which would abolish slavery, passing it late in the day. (The recent movie “Lincoln,”one of the better Civil War movies, in my view, depicted that event relatively realistically).
General Jacob Cox, who had been active in the Western campaign which destroyed the Confederate Army of Tennessee under John Bell Hood, was in Washington that day on his way to his final campaign in North Carolina. He was also consulting with Ohio’s Republican congressional leaders about his running for Governor of Ohio later that year — an election which he would win.
Cox was in the House gallery as the debate and vote took place. He wrote to his wife that the bill “finally passed amid the most tremendous excitement.” As a graduate of the intensely-antislavery Oberlin College and a staunch opponent of slavery, Cox was likely among those applauding the loudest, as were the blacks who were allowed to sit in a separate section of the gallery for the first time in 1864. He met with Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase and Henry Ward Beecher, and commented later, “the great historical event was, of course, the central subject of conversation. The forecast by such men of the effect upon the country and upon the world made a blending of solid wisdom with brilliant eloquence not to be forgotten….[throughout Washington] there was something almost unreal, though fascinating in the contrast of the excitement of the field with the totally different but scarcely less absorbing excitement which I saw in every face. ”
Below is an image of the House when it voted for the 13th amendment.
(I would appreciate readers sharing this item and others with their colleagues on various social media).
One of the stereotypes about military organizations/bureaucracies is that they are always planning for the last war and are reluctant to adopt new, untried weapons or methods. In the Civil War one of the strongest proponents of that attitude, General James W. Ripley, was the Union army’s Chief of Ordnance from the beginning of the war until September 1863. Early in the war he opposed the purchase of additional stocks of muskets because the army had a large supply of smooth bores, which he thought should be used first. He also adamantly opposed the use/purchase of breech-loading rifles and repeater rifles, among other reasons because he believed volunteer soldiers were undisciplined and would waste ammunition.
Would the war have been much shorter if Union soldiers had had repeaters (not to mention other innovations like the Gatling gun) as early as 1863 in large numbers? We can only speculate — but it certainly would not have been longer!
Below are images of the a Repeater Rifle, the Gatling Gun, and General Ripley
My book, “Lincoln, Antietam, and a Northern Lost Cause” is now ranked in the top 5 in amazon.com’s listings of History of Abolition and 19th Century American History. The book is now available in e-form at a reduced rate, so I hope many others will give it a look. Thank you, readers!
Below is the link to amazon.com’s ratings:
Thanks to those who have bought my books and to those who will do so in the future. I very much appreciate your interest, and look forward to your feedback/reviews. It would be especially helpful if you would write your review on amazon.com, which is the place to which most people go — it is also where my books are for sale: https://www.amazon.com/-/e/B00HV4SSWK
Below are pictures of the books: